珍珠港演說-羅斯福
文章來源: 文章作者: 發布時間:2006-12-30 03:09 字體: [ ]  進入論壇
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背景知識

日本由1931年起,在亞洲進行軍國主義擴張活動,到1939年,日本已侵占大部分中國領土,并準備揮軍東南亞國家,攫取這些地區的天然資源。1940年,日本和德國、意大利組成軸心國,與英法為首的同盟國對壘。

歐洲陷于二次世界大戰的戰火中,但美國仍然不想卷入戰爭,只對日采取石油禁運,并希望透過談判,勸阻日本的侵略行動。不過日本決定先發制人,在1941年12月7日,派出海空軍部隊,突襲美國位于夏威夷的海軍基地--珍珠港 (Pearl Harbor),結果成功擊沉、擊毀美國19艘大型艦只,炸毀美國150架飛機,造成 2400多名美國人死亡,傷 1178 人。而日本付出的代價輕微,僅損失飛機 20多架和5艘袖珍潛水艇。

當時的美國總統羅斯福 (Franklin Delano Roosevelt),在發生突襲后第二日,在國會發表對日宣戰的著名演說--珍珠港演說 (Pearl Harbor Speech)。美國人在日本偷襲珍珠港前,對應否加入二次大戰存在分歧,偷襲事件激起民憤,結果全國團結起來,支持參戰。德國和意大利亦于3日后,對美國宣戰。

羅斯福是美國第32任總統,在位時間長達12年。他在1921年(39歲時)曾染上小兒麻痹癥,雙腳癱瘓,但他并未放棄從政的道路,繼出任紐約州長后,在1933年成功入主白宮,并三次成功競選連任,1945年4月12 日,羅斯福第4次宣誓成為美國總統后不久,因腦溢血而離開人世。

演說原文

PEARL HARBOR SPEECH
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
December 8, 1941
To the Congress of the United States:

Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy1 - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately2 attacked by naval3 and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation4 of Japan, was still in conversation with the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.

Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations5, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack.

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed6 on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.
This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense7.

Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us.
No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.

Hostilities8 exist. There is no blinking at the fact that that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger.

With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable9 triumph - so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.

評價講解

很多人將2001年9月11日恐怖分子襲擊紐約和華盛頓,比作60年前的日本偷襲珍珠港事件,當時的美國總統羅斯福(Franklin Delano Roosevelt),于日本發動突襲后的第二日,在國會發表美國對日宣戰的著名演說。
和布什的演說一樣,羅斯福一開始就把事件的時間和性質交代清楚︰Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.
昨日,1941年12月7日是恥辱的一天(Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy),成為歷史的名言,不用a date with infamy,是為了表示莊重。
拿這一句和布什911演說的第一句比較︰Today, our fellow citizens, our way of life, our very freedom came under attack in a series of deliberate and deadly terrorist acts. 大家都用了deliberately或deliberate,字典解作蓄意,但在這兩篇演說中的意思,是有預謀或有陰謀,帶有強烈批判意義。
馬丁路德金在I have a Dream演說中,不斷重復關鍵的字眼和句子,以加強煽動力,其實也是采用了羅斯福重復的手法︰
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.
Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.
Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.
This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.
羅斯福一連用了4個Last night和5個Japanese,絕不是累贅,也不是單調,反而令演說充滿一種凝重的節奏。
演說中有一個句子的結構非常特別︰Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. 這是一個倒裝的句子,很多人以為應該是︰We will always remember the character of the onslaught against us. 或者不用character,用nature︰We will always remember the nature of the onslaught against us. 其實Always will放在前面,是一種倒裝的修辭方法,強調永遠的意思,如此奇恥大辱,國民將會永志不忘。
英語中這樣的倒裝用法不多,另一個例子是︰Not until I finish the job, may I go. 沒有完成工作之前,我不能離開。正確的講法應為︰I may not go until I finish the job. 倒裝句法較靈活,但通常用于書面語。
羅斯福演說的結論是向日本宣戰︰I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire. 總統權力雖然很大,但所有的行政權力,必須要由國會批準,這種上尊下卑、繁文縟節,行政與立法的關系,必須交代清楚,羅斯福不能自己說I declare that,而要不厭其煩地用兩個that︰I ask that the Congress declare that。
這一句用得非常聰明,他說美國和日本已經存在了戰爭狀態,避免了我向你宣戰的主語和賓語的關系。這是學英語一個比較難的地方,因為中國人學英文,往往受中文思維影響,如美國向日本宣戰,但英語的客觀說法︰美國和日本之間存在戰爭狀態,更能營造沉重、不共戴天、勢不兩立的激憤和仇恨。
演說中有一句,用了一個較特別的字眼︰Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu. 羅斯福用Commence,而不是我們常用的Start 和Begin,因為前者較正式。我們也要留意這三個詞的習慣用法︰Commence bombing / Start bombing / Begin to bomb. 這些英語的習慣用法,只能死記硬背,沒有快捷方式可走。
羅斯福和布什發表演說的時間相距60年,但兩篇演說一脈相承,在段落和字句中都閃耀著美國精神的光芒,難怪美國一直保持其超級強國的地位。

 

 



點擊收聽單詞發音收聽單詞發音  

1 infamy j71x2     
n.聲名狼藉,出丑,惡行
參考例句:
  • They may grant you power,honour,and riches but afflict you with servitude,infamy,and poverty.他們可以給你權力、榮譽和財富,但卻用奴役、恥辱和貧窮來折磨你。
  • Traitors are held in infamy.叛徒為人所不齒。
2 deliberately Gulzvq     
adv.審慎地;蓄意地;故意地
參考例句:
  • The girl gave the show away deliberately.女孩故意泄露秘密。
  • They deliberately shifted off the argument.他們故意回避這個論點。
3 naval h1lyU     
adj.海軍的,軍艦的,船的
參考例句:
  • He took part in a great naval battle.他參加了一次大海戰。
  • The harbour is an important naval base.該港是一個重要的海軍基地。
4 solicitation LwXwc     
n.誘惑;攬貨;懇切地要求;游說
參考例句:
  • Make the first solicitation of the three scheduled this quarter. 進行三位名單上預期捐助人作本季第一次邀請捐獻。 來自互聯網
  • Section IV is about the proxy solicitation system and corporate governance. 隨后對委托書的格式、內容、期限以及能否實行有償征集、征集費用由誰承擔以及違反該制度的法律責任進行論述,并提出自己的一些見解。 來自互聯網
5 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
協商( negotiation的名詞復數 ); 談判; 完成(難事); 通過
參考例句:
  • negotiations for a durable peace 為持久和平而進行的談判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 談判未能達成任何妥協。
6 torpedoed d479f6a26c6f383df7093841f7bfff3e     
用魚雷襲擊(torpedo的過去式與過去分詞形式)
參考例句:
  • Her comments had torpedoed the deal. 她的一番話使得那筆交易徹底告吹。
  • The battle ship was torpedoed. 該戰列艦遭到了魚雷的襲擊。
7 defense AxbxB     
n.防御,保衛;[pl.]防務工事;辯護,答辯
參考例句:
  • The accused has the right to defense.被告人有權獲得辯護。
  • The war has impacted the area with military and defense workers.戰爭使那個地區擠滿了軍隊和防御工程人員。
8 hostilities 4c7c8120f84e477b36887af736e0eb31     
n.戰爭;敵意(hostility的復數);敵對狀態;戰事
參考例句:
  • Mexico called for an immediate cessation of hostilities. 墨西哥要求立即停止敵對行動。
  • All the old hostilities resurfaced when they met again. 他們再次碰面時,過去的種種敵意又都冒了出來。
9 inevitable 5xcyq     
adj.不可避免的,必然發生的
參考例句:
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.瑪麗戴著她總是戴的那頂大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.戰敗對英國政策不可避免地產生了影響。
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